Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Further studies should be conducted to further validate these data. Study results were then synthesized, qualitatively, and within the current research, there is overwhelming support of take-home naloxone programs being effective in preventing fatal opioid overdoses. Naloxone perspectives from people who use opioids: Findings from an ethnographic study in three states. Our aim was to assess the expected outcomes and cost-effectiveness of distributing naloxone to heroin users Harm Reduct J. Twenty years of take-home naloxone for the prevention of overdose deaths from heroin and other opioids-Conception and maturation. 2020 Jan 16;15(1):e0227298. This study had a similar limitation to other studies in that it was difficult to obtain accurate follow-up data because they were self-reported. The impact of take-home naloxone distribution and training on opiate overdose knowledge and response: An evaluation of the THN project in Wales. Exploring the life-saving potential of naloxone: A systematic review and descriptive meta-analysis of take home naloxone (THN) programmes for opioid users. Practice Implications: On the basis of the most current evidence, there is overwhelming support of take-home naloxone programs associated with decreased mortality among those who abuse opioids. There was one randomized controlled pilot study included, which had to be ceased because of most naloxone administration being used on other people rather than the person it was dispensed to (Parmar et al., 2017). This study did provide valuable information and outcomes that show a positive correlation between OEND programs and decreased mortality with opioid overdoses. describes how the original THKs have grown into programs that place naloxone in the hands of users, caregivers, laypersons, and emergency personnel for opioid overdose administration. Sign in, July/September 2018, Volume 29 Number 3 , p 167 - 171, Mortality, Informed consent was obtained from all participants, and confidentiality was provided via anonymized data. The research done by McDonald et al. Furthermore, the evaluation of the Bradford Hill's criteria for causality was met in terms of strength, consistency, specificity, analogy, biological gradient, and plausibility, and partially met were temporality, coherence, and experiment (Bird et al., 2016). The authors also included additional five criteria for feasibility as recommended by the World Health Organization. Participants were tested before and after training regarding THKs, and follow-up was through refill requests. Data were collected from 2002 to 2009 of 19 communities comparing the implementation of overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution (OEND) programs with high and low implementation with those with no implementation. Bornstein KJ, Coye AE, St Onge JE, Li H, Muller A, Bartholomew TS, Tookes HE. The researchers obtained approval via the University of Glamorgan Ethics Committee and the Welsh Government. | It is recommended that further research is done examining the cost-effectiveness of these programs. This study aimed to measure four outcomes, knowledge changes regarding the use of naloxone in opioid overdoses, and changes in confidence and willingness in implementing the use of this new knowledge (Bennett & Holloway, 2012). Because of this conclusion, the main trial was not able to move forward. Despite limited and lower levels of evidence within the available research, the current evidence is overwhelmingly in support of THN programs as being effective in preventing fatal overdoses among those who abuse opioids. NIH This study by McAuley et al. (2017). As a result, there is an implication for a practice change that take-home naloxone programs should be more widely implemented throughout communities as a method of decreasing mortality associated with opioid overdoses. Purpose: Opioid abuse is on the rise in the United States and has become a national crisis. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. The key words searched were "programs," "take-home kits," "Narcan," "Naloxone," and "mortality." In 2014, there were 47,055 drug overdose deaths recorded in the United States, and of these, 28,647 had opioids involved (Rudd, Seth, David, & Scholl, 2016). 2017 Sep 1;178:176-187. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.05.001. Naloxone, At the close of the pilot trial, all of the participants in the control group were given NOR. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/key-issues/prescription-opioid-misuse[Context Link], Parmar M. K., Strang J., Choo L., Meade A. M., Bird S. M. (2017). The pilot trial was stopped on December 8, 2014, after analysis revealed that ex-prisoners in the NOR group were more likely (3:1 ratio) to administer the naloxone to someone else experiencing an overdose (Parmar et al., 2017). Opioid overdose rates and implementation of overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution in Massachusetts: Interrupted time series analysis. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. 2020 Apr 1:10.1097/JXX.0000000000000371. The secondary outcome measured consists of the primary outcome in addition to ORDs with a 4-week hospital discharge. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26(12), 1183-1188. http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.09.011[Context Link], McDonald R., Campbell N. D., Strang J. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine if programs that supply take-home naloxone are effective in preventing fatal overdoses among those who abuse opioids. The study did find positive enrollment and, participants felt safer in their heroin use with naloxone (Parmar et al., 2017). Epub 2017 May 25. Limitations exist within the study; one poignant limitation is that THN is not typically used by the person acquiring it, in such that the beneficiaries of the program are not individually identifiable (Bird et al., 2016). The purpose of this systematic review was to determine if programs that supply take-home naloxone are effective in preventing fatal overdoses among those who abuse opioids. Furthermore, 19 of the studies encompassed in the review by the EMCDDA, as referenced above, were cited in "A Systematic Review of Community Opioid Overdose Prevention and Naloxone Distribution Programs" (Clark, Wilder, & Winstanley, 2014). (n.d.). In addition, it is recommended that further studies be conducted consisting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses examining the cost-effectiveness of THN programs for implementation of widespread use at the population level, as it is already determined to be an effective lifesaving method. Main aims that the researchers sought to examine were fourfold: summarize the power of Scotland's NNP as a before/after evaluation as determined by primary and secondary outcomes, appraise the evidence for the NNP's effectiveness, assess for causality via Bradford Hill's criteria, and estimate the cost-effectiveness of the NNP in terms of quality-adjusted life years as a gain of 1-10 years (Bird et al., 2016).
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